Selected Bibliography

General Trafficking
Forced Prostitution
Forced Labor
Women and Trafficking
Children and Trafficking

General Trafficking

Adepoju, Aderanti. 2005. “Review of Research and Data on Human Trafficking in sub-Saharan Africa.” International Migration 43(1-2): 75-98.

Akee, Randall, Arnab K. Basu, Arjun Bedi and Nancy H. Chau. 2009. “Combating Trafficking in Women and Children: A Review of International and National Legislation, Co-ordination Failures and Perverse Economic Incentives.” The Protection Project Journal of Human Rights and Civil Society 2: 1-24.

Akee, Randall, Arnab K. Basu, Arjun Bedi and Nancy H. Chau. 2011. “Transnational Trafficking, Law Enforcement and Victim Protection: A Middleman Trafficker’s Perspective.” IZA Discussion Paper 6226.

Akee, Randall K.Q., Arnab K. Basu, Nancy H. Chau, and Melanie Khamis. 2010. “Ethnic Fragmentation, Conflict, Displaced Persons and Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis.” IZA Discussion Paper 5142. Bonn, Germany.

Bales, Kevin. 2004. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bales, Kevin. 2007. Ending Slavery: How We Free Today’s Slaves. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bales, Kevin. 2005. Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bales, Kevin, and Becky Cornell. 2008. Slavery Today, Groundwork Guides. Toronto: Groundwood Books.

Bhattacharyya, Gargi. 2005. Traffick: The Illicit Movement of People and Things. London: Pluto.

Brand, Megan. 2010. “International Cooperatoin and the Anti-Trafficking Regime.” In Refugee Studies Centre. WORKING PAPER SERIES NO. 71. Oxford UK.

Bravo, Karen E. 2009. “Free Labor – a Labor Liberation Solution to Modern Trafficking in Humans.” Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 18: 545-616.

Bruch, Elizabeth M. 2004. “Models Wanted: The Search for an Effective Response to Human Trafficking.” Stanford Journal of international Law 40: 1-46.

Cameron, Sally & Edward Newman. 2008. Trafficking in Humans: Social, Cultural, and Political Dimensions. New York: United Nations Press.

Chacon, Jennifer M. 2010. “Tensions and Trade-Offs: Protecting Trafficking Victims in the Era of Immigration Enforcement.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 158: 1609-54.

Chacon, Jennifer M. 2005-2006. “Misery and Myopia: Understanding the Failures of U.S. Efforts to Stop Human Trafficking.” Fordham Law Review 74: 2977-3040.

Cho, Seo-Young. 2012. “Modeling for Determinants of Human Trafficking.” Göttingen, Germany: Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research, Göttingen University.

Cho, Seo-Young, Axel Dreher & Eric Neumayer. 2011. The spread of anti-trafficking policies: Evidence from a new index. Cege Discussion Paper Series No. 119, Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Germany.

Chuang, Janie. 2005-2006. “The United States as Global Sheriff: Using Unilateral Sanctions to Combat Human Trafficking.” Michigan Journal of International Law 27: 437-94.

Cornell, Svante E. 2009. “The Interaction of Drug Smuggling, Human Trafficking and Terrorism.” In Human Trafficking and Human Security, ed. Anna Jonsson. New York: Routledge. 48-66.

Danailova-Trainor, Gergana & Patrick Belser. 2006. Globalization and the Illicit Market for Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis of Supply and Demand. Geneva: ILO.

DeStefano, Anthony M. 2007. The War on Human Trafficking : U.S. Policy Assessed. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Dunne, Joseph L. 2012. “Hijacked: How Efforts to Redefine the International Definition of Human Trafficking Threaten Its Purpose.” Willamette Law Review 48: 403-26.

Emmers, Ralf; Beth Greener-Barcham; and Nicholas Thomas. 2008. “Securitising Human Trafficking in the Asia-Pacific : Regional Organisations and Response Strategies.” In Security and Migration in Asia: The Dynamics of Securitisation, eds. Melissa Curley and Siu-lun Wong. New York: Routledge.

Frank, Richard W. 2013. “Human Trafficking Indicators Dataset, 2000-2010.” Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney. Available at SSRN:

Frank, Richard W. and Beth A. Simmons. 2013. “National Law Enforcement in a Globalized World: The Case of Human Trafficking.” APSA Annual Meeting Paper. Available at SSRN:

Friedrich, Amy G.; Anna N. Myer & Deborah G. Perlman. 2006. The Trafficking in Persons Report: Strengthening A Diplomatic Tool. Los Angeles: UCLA School of Public Affairs.

Fry, Lincoln J. 2010. “Continuities in the Prediction of Human Trafficking: A Research Note.” International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 34: 201-12.

Gallagher, Anne. 2009. “Human Rights and Human Trafficking: Quagmire or Firm Ground? A Response to James Hathaway.” Virginia Journal of International Law 49: 789-848.

Gallagher, Anne T. 2010. The International Law of Human Trafficking. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Goodey, Jo. 2008. “Human Trafficking: Sketchy Data and Policy Responses.” Criminology and Criminal Justice 8(4): 421-442.

Hathaway, James C. 2008. “The Human Rights Quagmire of ‘Human Trafficking’.” Virginia Journal of International Law 49: 1-59.

International Organization for Migration. 2012. Counter Trafficking Module. Dataset. Geneva: IOM.

Jackson, Nicole J. 2008. “Human Trafficking in Post-Soviet Central Asia: A Critique of the Securitisation Framework.” In Security and Migration in Asia: The Dynamics of Securitisation, eds. Melissa Curley and Siu-lun Wong. Vol. [69]. London: Routledge. 148-64.

Jones, Loring, David W. Engstrom, Tricia Hilliard, and Mariel Diaz. 2007. “Globalization and Human Trafficking.” Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 34: 107-22.

Kneebone, Susan, and Julie Debeljak. 2012. Transnational Crime and Human Rights: Responses to Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion. London; New York: Routledge.

Laczko, Frank. 2003. “Developing Better Indicators of Human Trafficking.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 10(1).

Laczko, Frank. 2007. “Enhancing Data Collection and Research on Trafficking in Persons.” In Measuring Human Trafficking: Complexities and Pitfalls, Ernesto U. Savona and Sonia Stefanizzi, eds. New York: Springer Science: 37-44.

Lee, June J. H. 2005. “Human Trafficking in East Asia: Current Trends, Data Collection, and Knowledge Gaps.” International Migration 43: 165-201.

Limoncelli, Stephanie A. 2009. “Human Trafficking: Globalization, Exploitation, and Transnational Sociology.” Sociology Compass 3: 72-91.

Lloyd, Paulette, and Beth Simmons. 2010. “Subjective Frames and Rational Choice: Transnational Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking.”

Lloyd, Paulette, Beth A Simmons, and Brandon M Stewart. 2012. “Combating Transnational Crime: The Role of Learning and Norm Diffusion in the Current Rule of Law Wave.” In The Dynamics of the Rule of Law, eds. Andre Nollkaemper, Michael Zurn and Randy Peerenboom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 153-80.

Maltzahn, Kathleen. 2008. Trafficked, Briefings. Sydney, NSW: UNSW Press.

Mameli, PeterA. 2002. “Stopping the Illegal Trafficking of Human Beings.” Crime, Law and Social Change 38: 67-80.

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE, 2001) Human Trafficking: Fastest Growing Form of Organized Crime, Mr. Arlacchi Tells OSCE. Press Release. Vienna: OSCE (

Perrin, Benjamin. 2010. “Just Passing Through? International Legal Obligations and Policies of Transit Countries in Combating Trafficking in Persons.” European Journal of Criminology 7: 11-27.

Picarelli, John T 2007. “Historical Approaches to the Trade in Human Beings.” In Human Trafficking, ed. Maggy Lee. Cullompton, Devon, U.K. ; Portland, Or.: Willan.

Rao, Smriti, and Christina Presenti. 2012. “Understanding Human Trafficking Origin: A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis.” Feminist Economics 18: 231-63.

Sadruddin, Husseom, Natalia Walter & Jose Hildalgo. 2005. “Human trafficking in the United States: Expanding victim protection beyond prosecution witnesses.” Stanford Law and Policy Review 16(2): 379-415.

Savoni, Ernesto, and Sonia Stefanizzi, eds. 2007. Measuring Human Trafficking. New York: Springer.

Shelley, Louise. 2010. Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Simmons, Beth, Paulette Lloyd, and Brandon Stewart. 2011. “The Global Diffusion of Law: Transnational Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking.” Available at SSRN 1910623.

Steele, Abbey. 2006. “Insecurity and opportunity in Colombia: Linking civil war and human trafficking.” In Trafficking and the Global Sex Industry, eds. Karen Beeks and Delila Amir. Landham, MD: Lexington Books.

Stolz, Barbara Ann 2007. “Interpreting the U.S. Human Trafficking Debate through the Lens of Symbolic Politics.” Law & Policy 29: 311-38.

Surtees, Rebecca. 2008. “Traffickers and Trafficking in Southern and Eastern Europe: Considering the Other Side of Human Trafficking.” European Journal of Criminology 5: 39-68.

Thachuk, Kimberley L. 2007. Transnational Threats: Smuggling and Trafficking in Arms, Drugs, and Human Life. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International.

Todres, Jonathan 2011. “Moving Upstream: The Merits of a Public Health Law Approach to Human Trafficking.” North Carolina Law Review 89: 447.

Turner, Jackie, and Liz Kelly. 2009. “Trade Secrets: Intersections between Diasporas and Crime Groups in the Constitution of the Human Trafficking Chain.” The British Journal of Criminology 49: 184-201.

Tyldum, Guri, and A. Brunovskis. 2005. “Describing the Unobserved: Methodological Challenges in Empirical Studies on Human Trafficking.” International Migration 43(1/2) 5 – 363.

Tyldum, Guri. 2010. “Limitations in Research on Human Trafficking.” International Migration 48(5): 1-13.

Tyldum, Guri. 2013. “Dependence and Human Trafficking in the Context of Transnational Marriage.” International Migration (Forthcoming).

United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime. 2012. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. Vienna: UNODC.

United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime. 2009. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. Vienna: UNODC.

United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime. 2006. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. Vienna: UNODC.

Verhoeven, M., and B. van Gestel. 2011. “Human trafficking and criminal investigation strategies in the Amsterdam Red Light District.” Trends in Organized Crime 14(2-3):148–164.

Walk Free Foundation. 2013. Global Slavery Index 2013. Claremont & Dalkeith, Australia: Australian Children’s Trust and Hope for Children.

Wheaton, Elizabeth M., Edward J. Schauer, and Thomas V. Galli. 2010. “Economics of Human Trafficking.” International Migration 48(4): 114-141.

Wooditch, Alese. 2011. “The Efficacy of the Trafficking in Persons Report: A Review of the Evidence.” Criminal Justice Policy Review 22: 471-93.

Forced Prostitution

Brunovskis, Anette, and Rebecca Surtees. 2010. “Untold Stories: Biases and Selection Effects in Research with Victims of Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation.” International Migration 48(4): 1-37.

Brunovskis, Anette, and Guri Tyldum. 2004. “Crossing Borders: An Empirical Study of Transnational Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings.” Oslo, Norway: Fafo.

Chuang, Janie A. 2010. “Rescuing Trafficking from Ideological Capture: Prostitution Reform and Anti-Trafficking Law and Policy.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 158: 1655-728.

Deering, Kathleen N., Jill Chettiar, Keith Chan, Matthew Taylor, Julio SG Montaner, Kate Shannon. “Sex Work and the Public Health Impacts of the 2010 Olympic Games.” Sexually Transmitted Infections 88: 301-303.

Delva, Wim, Marlise Richter, Petra De Koker, Matthew Chersich, and Marleen Temmerman. 2011. “Sex Work During the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Results from a Three-Wave Cross-Sectional Survey.” PLoS ONE 6(12)

Dewey, Susan. 2008. Hollow Bodies : Institutional Responses to Sex Trafficking in Armenia, Bosnia, and India. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.

Di Nicola, Andrea, and Andrea Cauduro. 2007. “Review of Official Statistics on Trafficking in Human Beings for Sexual Exploitation and Their Validity in the 25 EU Member States from Official Statistics to Estimates of the Phenomenon in Measuring Human Trafficking.” In Savoni and Stefanizzi.

Farr, Kathryn. 2005. Sex Trafficking: The Global Market in Women and Children, Contemporary Social Issues. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Jakobsson, Niklas, and Andreas Kotsadam. 2013. “The Law and Economics of International Sex Slavery: Prostitution Laws and Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation.” European Journal of Law and Economics 35: 87-107.

Kara, Siddharth. 2009. Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kempadoo, Kamala, and Jo Doezema, eds. 1998. Global Sex Workers : Rights, Resistance, and Redefinition. New York: Routledge.

Kempadoo, Kamala, Jyoti Sanghera, and Bandana Pattanaik. 2012. Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered : New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights. 2nd ed. Boulder, Colo.: Paradigm Publishers.

Papanicolaou, Georgios. 2011. Transnational Policing and Sex Trafficking in Southeast Europe : Policing the Imperialist Chain, Transnational Crime, Crime Control and Security. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Parrot, Andrea, and Nina Cummings. 2008. Sexual Enslavement of Girls and Women Worldwide, Practical and Applied Psychology. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Schauer, Edward J., and Elizabeth Wheaton. 2006. “Sex Trafficking in the United States: A Literature Review.” Criminal Justice Review 31(1): 1-24.

Smith, Heather M. 2011. “Sex Trafficking: Trends, Challenges, and the Limitations of International Law.” Human Rights Review 12: 271-86.

Tyldum, Guri, Marianne Tveit, and Anette Brunovskis. 2005. “Taking Stock: A Review of the Existing Research on Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation.” Fafo Report 493. Norway.

Tyldum, G., and Tveit, M. 2008. “Someone who cares. A study of vulnerability and risk in marriage migration from Russia and Thailand to Norway.” Fafo Report. Norway.

Von Struensee, Vanessa. 2000. “Sex Trafficking: A Plea for Action.” European Law Journal 6: 379-407.

Vukmirovich, Dalia. 2013. Sex Trafficking Discourse and the 2010 Olympic Games. MA Thesis. Simon Fraser University.

Forced Labor

Andrees, Beate. 2008. “Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: A Handbook for Labour Inspectors.” Geneva: ILO.

Ehindero, Sola; Obafemi Awolowo and Patience Idemudia. 2006. “Baseline Study on Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Kwara, Kano, Cross Rivers and Lagos State in Nigeria.” Abuja: ILO/PATWA Offices in Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone and Liberia.

Mahmoud, Toman Omar, and Christoph Trebesch. 2010. “The Economics of Human Trafficking and Labor Migration: Micro-evidence from Eastern Europe.” Journal of Comparative Economics 38(2): 173-188.

Quayson, Ato, and Antonela Arhin. 2012. Labour Migration, Human Trafficking and Multinational Corporations : The Commodification of Illicit Flows, Routledge Transnational Crime and Corruption Series. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge.

Women and Trafficking

Acharaya, Arun Kumar. 2008. “Sexual Violence and Proximate Risk: A Study on Trafficked Women in Mexico City.” Gender, Technology and Development 12(1): 77-100.

Bedi, A.S. (Arjun Singh), Akee, R.K.Q. (Randall), Basu, A.K. and Chau, N.H. 2009. “Combating Trafficking in Women and Children: A Review of International and National Legislation, Coordination Failures and Perverse Economic Incentives.” Retrieved from

Carling, Jørgen. 2005. “Trafficking in Women from Nigeria to Europe.” Migration Information Source.

Cho, Seo-Young. 2012. “Integrating equality – Globalization, women’s rights, and human trafficking.” International Studies Quarterly. (Forthcoming).

Doezema, J. 2000. “Loose Women or Lost Women? The Re-Emergence of the Myth of ‘White Slavery’ in Contemporary Discourses of Trafficking in Women.” Gender Issues 18(1).

Ebbe, Obi N. Ignatius, and Dilip K. Das. 2008. Global Trafficking in Women and Children. Boca Raton, FL: Internation Police Executive Sysmposium : CRC Press.

Hausner, Sondra L. 2005. The Movement of Women: Migration, Trafficking, and Prostitution in the Context of Nepal’s Armed Conflict. Kathmandu, Nepal: Save the Children USA.

Hughes, D. 2004. “The Role of ‘Marriage Agencies’ in the Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking of Women from the Former Soviet Union.” International Review of Victimology 11, 49–71.

Jackson, S. H. 2002. “To honor and obey: Trafficking in ‘mail-order brides.’“ George Washington Law Review 70(3) 475–569.

Locher, Birgit. 2007. Trafficking in Women in the European Union : Norms, Advocacy-Networks and Policy-Change. 1. Aufl. ed. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Wijers, M., and L. Lap-Chew. 2003. “Trafficking in women for Forced Labour and Slavery like Practices in Marriage, Domestic Labour and Prostitution.” Foundation Against Trafficking in Women, Utrecht.

Zhao, G.M. 2003. “Trafficking of women for marriage in China: Policy and practice.” Criminal Justice 3:1.

Children and Trafficking

Achvarina, Vera, and Simon F. Reich. 2006. “No Place to Hide: Refugees, Displaced Persons, and the Recruitment of Child Soldiers.” International Security 31(1): 127–164.

Ames, Barry. 2010. “Methodological Problems in the Study of Child Soldiers.” in Child Soldiers in the Age of Fractured States, Scott Gates and Simon Reich (eds).

Amnesty International. 2011. In the Line of Fire: Somalia’s Children Under Attack. London: Amnesty International.

Basu, Arnab K. & Nancy H. Chau (2004) Exploitation of child labor and the dynamics of debt bondage. Journal of Economic Growth 9: 209-238.

Beah, Ishmael. 2008. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Berber, Bernd, and Christopher Blattman. 2013. “The Logic of Child Soldiers and Coercion.” International Organization 67(1): 65-104.

Child Soldiers International. 2012. Louder Than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London: Child Soldiers International.

Child Soldiers International. 2013. Chance for Change—Ending the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in Myanmar. London: Child Soldiers International.

Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. 2008. Child Soldiers Global Report 2008. London: Child Soldiers International.

Cohn, Ilene, and Guy S. Goodwin-Gill. 1994. Child Soldiers: The Role of Children in Armed Conflict. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Dallaire, Roméo. 2011. They Fight Like Soldiers, They Die Like Children: The Global Quest to Eradicate the Use of Child Soldiers. Random House Canada.

Denov, Myriam. 2010. Child Soldiers: Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Dottridge, Mike. 2002. “Trafficking in children in West and Central Africa.” Gender and Development 10(1): 38-42.

Gates, Scott. 2011. “Why Do Children Fight? Motivations and the Mode of Recruitment.” 29-49.

Gates, Scott and Simon Reich, eds. 2009. Child Soldiers in an Age of Fractures States. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh.

Happold, Matthew. 2005. Child Soldiers in International Law. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Hart, Jason. 2012. “The Mobilization of Children: What’s the Difference?” In
 Understanding Collective Political Violence. Edited by
 Yvan Guichaoua. New York: Routledge.

Høiskar, Astri Halsan. 2001. “Underage and Under Fire: An Enquiry into the Use of Child Soldiers, 1994-8.” Childhood 8(3): 340–360.

Honwana, Alcinda. 2007. Child Soldiers in Africa. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Human Rights Watch. 2007. Children in the Ranks: The Maoists’ Use of Child Soldiers in Nepal. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Human Rights Watch. 2003. “You’ll Learn Not to Cry”: Child Combatants in Colombia. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Jo, Hyeran. 2013. “International Law Meets Rebel Groups: The Issue of Child Soldiers.” Working Paper for ISA 2013.

Lasley, Trace C. 2011. Creed vs. Deed: Secession, Legitimacy and the Use of Child Soldiers. Dissertation. University of Kentucky, Political Science.

Machel, Graça. 1996. Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. New York: UNICEF.

Rosen, David M. 2005. Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Singer, Peter W. 2005. Children at War. New York: Pantheon Books.

Tynes, Robert, and Bryan R. Early. 2012. “Governments, Rebels, and the Use of Child Soldiers in Internal Armed Conflicts. Working Paper. Draft July 28, 2011.

United Nations Secretary-General. 2012. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. A/65/820–S/2011/250 New York: United Nations.

United Nations Secretary-General. 2010. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. A/64/742–S/2010/181. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Secretary-General. 2007. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. A/62/609–S/2007/757. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Secretary-General. 2006. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. A/61/529–S/2006/826. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Secretary-General. 2005. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Secretary-General. 2002. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. S/2002/1299. New York: United Nations.

UNICEF. 2013. Factsheet: Child Soldiers. Available from:

Wessells, Michael. 2006. Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Zack-Williams, A.B. 2001. “Child Soldiers in the Civil War in Sierra Leone.” Review of African Political Economy 28(87): 73-82.